Hollow glass Invented by Americans in 1865, is a new building material with good heat insulation, sound insulation, beautiful, and can reduce the weight of the building, it is with two (or three) glass, with high strength and high air tightness composite adhesive, bonding Aluminum Alloy frame glass and containing a desiccant, efficient sound insulation insulating glass.Hollow glass performance is superior to ordinary glass, so it has been accepted by other countries in the world, hollow glass is two or more pieces of glass to effectively support evenly spaced and sealed around the edge, the glass products with dry gas space formed between the two layers of glass.The main material is glass, aluminum spacer, corner bolt, Ding Ji rubber, polysulfide rubber, desiccant.
The main material:Is the glass, aluminum spacer, corner bolt, Ding Ji rubber, polysulfide rubber, desiccant
structure/ hollow glassedit
Ordinary insulating glass Hollow glass It is composed of two or more layers of flat glass.AroundHigh strength and tightness of composite binder, two or more pieces of glass andSeal upSealing strip, glass adhesive.The middle filled dry gas box filled with desiccant, to ensure that the glass sheet dryness of the air.Glass may be selected according to the requirements of various properties, such as clear float glass, embossed glass heat absorbing glass, heat reflective glass, laminated glass and tempered glass and the frame (or aluminum frame glass etc.), by cementation, welding or welding. The structure of double hollow glass profile.Hollow glassBy 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12mm thick slices of the original glass, the thickness of air layer by 6, 9, 12mm interval.. The glass thermal conductivity rate is 27 times the air, as long as the hollow glass is sealed, the hollow glass in the best insulation effect. Between the glass hollow glass and glass, have a certain space.Box filled with desiccant, to ensure that the glass sheet dryness of the air.The two layer spacing of hollow glass is generally 8mm. High performance hollow glass is different from ordinary insulating glass, except at the middle of the two layers of glass sealed in dry air, but also on the outside of the glass in the middle layer of air side, special coated with a layer of thermal performance of metal film.It can stop by the sun to the interior of the considerable energy to heat insulation effect is greater.
principle/ hollow glassedit
Because the hollow glass exists can adsorb water molecules desiccant, gas is dry, the temperature is reduced, the internal hollow glass does not produce condensation phenomenon, at the same time, the outer surface of the hollow glass dew point will rise.
Such as when the outdoor wind speed is 5m/s, the indoor temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, relative humidity is 60%, 5mm glass in the outdoor temperature to begin condensation 8 DEG C, and 16mm (5+6+5) hollow glass under the same conditions, the outdoor temperature is -2 DEG C when condensation, 27mm (5+6+5+6+5) three layers of glass at room temperature outside -11 C before condensation.
Hollow glass energy transfer has three modes: namely, radiative transfer, transfer and conduction transfer.
Radiative transfer is energy transfer by radiation in the form of radiation of the radiation, visible light, infrared and ultraviolet ray etc. This includes, as the sun light relay.
The thickness of the interlayer insulating glass and insulating glass of the rational allocation of reasonable, can reduce the maximum energy through the form of radiation transfer, so as to reduce the loss of energy.
Transfer is due to temperature difference on both sides of the glass caused by air in the cold and hot side down in the side up, produce air convection, resulting in the loss of energy.
There are several reasons for this phenomenon: one is the poor sealing frame system and the surrounding glass, causing gas exchange inside and outside the window can directly cause convection, leads to the loss of energy; the two is to design the internal spatial structure of the hollow glass is not reasonable, resulting in the air in the hollow glass convection due to temperature difference. Driven by the energy exchange, to generate energy of
; three is the temperature difference between inside and outside the structure of the whole system window is larger, resulting in hollow glass, the temperature difference between inside and outside is large, cold radiation and heat conduction through air, first produced convection on both sides of the insulating glass, hollow glass and then through the whole transfer in the past, the formation of energy loss.
Reasonable design of hollow glass, can reduce the gas convection, thereby reducing convection loss of energy.
Conduction transfer is through the object molecular motion, driven by the energy movement, to achieve the purpose of passing, like iron rice and electric soldering iron things, and the energy transfer of conduction insulating glass is accomplished by glass and its internal air.
We know that the thermal conductivity of glass is 0.77W/ MK.
The thermal conductivity of air is 0.028 W/ MK, thus, the glass thermal conductivity rate is 27 times the air, air and water molecules in the active molecules, are the main factors that influence the hollow glass energy conduction transfer and convection transfer performance, thus improving the sealing performance of hollow glass, is an important factor to improve the hollow glass insulation performance.
Characteristic/ hollow glassedit
The larger the energy saving effect High performanceHollow glassBecause, there is a layer of special metal film, shading coefficient can reach 0.22-0.49, so that the indoor air conditioning (air conditioning) reducing the load.The heat transfer coefficient of 1.4-2.8W (m2.K).Well, than ordinary insulating glass.To reduce indoor heating load, also play a great efficiency.Therefore, the window open more big, energy-saving effect is more obvious. To improve the indoor environment High performance hollow glass can be intercepted by the sun to the interior of the equivalent energy, so as to prevent dizziness caused by radiant heat and relieve the discomfort caused by the sun sunset. The rich colors and art There are a variety of colors and high performance hollow glass, canaccording toThe need to use the color, to achieve a better artistic effect. The use of high performance hollow glass Suitable for office buildings, exhibition room, library and other public facilities and special buildings like the computer room, precision instrument workshop, chemical factories and other requirements of constant temperature and humidity.It also can be used in sunscreen and anti dazzling sunset place. Note: hollow glass sealed in dry air, so according to the change of temperature, pressure, internal air pressure changes, but the glass surface produces only small deformation.In addition, making possible small warpage, distortion in the process of construction may be formed.It included such factors, sometimes also reflected some changes, which should be paid attention to.Choose a different color, the reflection is not the same. Gold, copper and silver metal coating in far infrared region, the wavelength range of more than 4 mu m, a high reflectivity.As for the typical metal coating thickness, total reflectivity of up to 90%-95%, high infrared reflectivity is equivalent to low emission rate (Low-e), this would reduce the radiation components inside and outside the hollow glass glass plate, corresponding to this, in comparison to the standard 12mm hollow glass component and the air layer, the insulation value from 0.3W/ (m2.K).In addition, if the components in the air is replaced by a heavy gas, the heat value is 1.4W/ (m2.K).Thinning the thickness of the metal layer, the light transmittance can be increased to about 60%-60%.This thin protective coating is very good too can effect, also has high infrared reflectivity values in 85% or 75% range.The air layer is 12mm filled with heavy gas, up to 1.6-1.9W/ coated with insulation value (m2.K).
The main purpose/ hollow glassedit
The use of hollow glass
Hollow glass is mainly used for
Heating, air conditioning, to prevent noise
The building or condensation and direct sunlight and special light.
Widely used in residential, hotel, hotels, office buildings, schools, hospitals, shops and other indoor places need.
Can also be used to train, car, ship, freezer doors and windows etc..
Hollow glass is mainly used for decorating the outer glass.
The optical properties, thermal conductivity, coefficient of sound insulation shall comply with the national standard.
Reasonable structure, hollow glass design standard, heat insulation, sound insulation, can play the function of theft and fire.
The use of vacuum double-layer tempered glass can reach the laboratory standard!
With the addition of inert gas and gas color pigment hollow glass on the market, and increase the beauty of a play to reinforce and decorative effects.
Hollow glass aluminum spacer effect: aluminum is called active metal elements, but in the air will form a layer of dense oxide film on the surface, so they can not continue to function with oxygen and water.
Can react with oxygen at high temperature, the release of large amounts of heat, with the high heat of reaction, aluminum oxides from metal replacement (aluminothermy)
Common classification/ hollow glassedit
A hollow float glass. Two. Hollow toughened glass Three coated hollow glass. Four.LOW-E hollow glass Hollow glass is common: 5+9A+5 double hollow.Sheny doors and windows explained here refers to the thickness of the glass is 5 5mm, 9 refers to the hollow part of 9mm, the letter A is the abbreviation for air.On the market as well as the models 5+15A+5, 5+22A+5, 5+27A+5, 5+32A+5 and so on, to know the meaning of it is not difficult to understand.
Safety performance/ hollow glassedit
Because of the good thermal insulation performance of hollow glass, glass on both sides of the temperature difference, but also can reduce the cold radiation effects; when the outdoor temperature is -10 DEG C, the single glass window of the indoor temperature of -2 and hollow.The window glass temperature is 13 DEG C; in the same housing structure, when the outdoor temperature is -8 DEG C, the indoor temperature is 20 degrees centigrade, 3mm single cold radiation glass interior space of the region accounted for 67.4%, while the use of double hollow glass (3+6+3) was 13.4%. The use of hollow glass, can improve the safety performance of glass, with the same thickness of the original glass case, 1.5 times the strength of the wind pressure is ordinary monolithic glass insulating glass. Seven
Development prospects/ hollow glassedit
The upgrade of consumption structure, encourage enterprises for independent innovation, new rural construction and urbanization process will ensure that the domestic market of glass products in the long-term demand growth trend remains unchanged.Along with the construction, automobile, decoration, furniture industry, information technology and other industries development and the requirements of people's living environment improved, the function of safety glass, energy-saving insulating glass processing products are widely used.The pattern of supply and demand and consumption structure of flat glass is changing. In many industries the development of glass industry and the national economy there is a link, the glass industry to promote the development of the national economy plays a positive role.Therefore, the "11th Five-Year" planning in the development of glass industry put forward specific requirements.Healthy development also enacted various laws and regulations to regulate the glass industry.In the new situation, the glass industry must be in accordance with the requirements of Scientific Outlook on Development, change the mode of growth, effective adjustment of industrial structure, to promote the healthy development of the industry.
Design points/ hollow glassedit
1 aluminum type double sealing hollow glass first sealButyl rubberThat has a very low water vapor permeability; second sealant mainly polysulfide rubber and silicone rubber.Polysulfide glue vapor rate less than silicone glue, but the anti ultraviolet ability than silicone rubber, it is suitable for window or frame glass curtain wall (because the aluminum frame can shade, avoid direct sunlight); silicone rubber is suitable for the hidden frame glass curtain wall and its anti UV ability and strength are higher than the polysulfide rubber.When the decorative building has higher requirements on insulating glass, can choose white or transparent silicone rubber.Avoid doing wood window sealed for second with silicone rubber, because of its resistance to wood preservative is poor, sealant will suffer from migration. 2 aluminum frame interval should be used for a long tube bending angle, the joint application of butyl rubber sealed; interval aluminum frame, such as the use of the four angle plug, the joints also used butyl rubber sealed insulating glass, in order to make the service life than the former.When the second insulating glass sealant with silicone rubber, should not use hollow glass four angle plug interval aluminum frame. 3 because of the use of the sealant, so it should not be used in the temperature of 70 DEG C or more, otherwise it will greatly affect the service life of the hollow glass. 4 changes in the internal pressure of the air layer hollow glass so that the glass deformation will lead to distorted image, so the use of hollow glass at an altitude of 1000m or above, air layer must be adjusted, in order to be consulted and glass suppliers. Heat insulation and window frame material 5 are closely related, so we should choose the window frame material with good insulation performance. 6 such as indoor lighting ceiling, side glass should be used interlayer or explosion-proof membrane. 7 Low-E hollow glass,Membrane surfaceIn second or third surfaces, should be designed according to the need to choose.If the hollow glass must be designed for the size of the form, it must be positioned on the third surface membrane surface. The maximum 8 supported insulating glass with an area of maximum hollow glass by two monolithic glass slice thickness is calculated by 1.5 times area. 9 architectural design with the following technical performance request: insulation, heat insulation, sound insulation, lighting performance, sealing performance, weather resistance. Warm edge sealing system (1) hollow glass doors and windows, can be used alone as a single strip sealing mode of the sealing system, can ensure the insulating glass has more than 10 years service life.Hollow glass curtain wall, must be in the glue. The outside sealing structure glue as the two sealant, to ensure that the insulating glass has sufficient structural strength. (2) particularly suitable for the production of profiled hollow glass and inflatable hollow glass, especially suitable for special-shaped inflatable Low-E hollow glass, because the volatile gas strip itself has no adverse effects on the Low-E film, so it can guarantee the Low-E hollow glass has a long service life. (3) super spacer type hollow glass Hollow glass window, can be on the outside of super spacer sealing sufficient depth of hot melt butyl rubber, to ensure that the hollow glass sealing system with anti moisture permeability enough.Hollow glass curtain wall, must be in the third layer structure of rubber hot melt butyl rubber seal outside deep enough, to ensure that the hollow glass structure with enough strength and service life. The traditional warm edge spacer system (1) type U type hollow glass Hollow glass window, can only use hot melt butyl rubber is used as sealing material alone.Hollow glass curtain wall, must be in the structural adhesive hot melt butyl rubber seal outside sufficient depth, to ensure that the bond strength and the service life is enough.In the hollow glass for inflation, great attention must be paid to the seal of U strip joints. (2) plastic injection type aluminum hollow glass Basically the same with the traditional aluminum hollow glass, note that because this product is used in the insulation adhesive in two aluminum strips, so the aluminum strip thickness must be more than 12mm can be achieved, but also because of the characteristics of intermediate insulation materials, it is difficult to achieve corner processing on the corner, so need to pay attention to the seal control corner is used in the design of inflatable hollow glass. process conditions 1, according to the wind load control hole size and the required thickness of the glass. 2, hollow glass made of construction, can not change the size, hole assembly hollow glass should be rectangular and vertical, pay attention to check the accuracy of its specification. 3, hollow glass is not allowed to have any surface paint or paper covered, because it may cause local overheating and lead to broken. 4, shall not be in direct contact with the frame of hollow glass. 5, the installation requirements should be based on hollow glass mosaicMaterial ScienceThe type of change.
The main problem/ hollow glassedit
Hollow glass as building energy-saving materials, which is widely used because of its good heat insulation and sound insulation performance.At the same time, the quality of the hollow glass of the increasingly high demand.It is understood that the quality of insulating glass is the biggest in the use of hollow gas condensation, and the reason is that the air layer air layer dew dew point increase in the use of the process.So the control of hollow glass dew point is the key to control the quality of hollow glass. Hollow glass in use, when the ambient temperature is reduced to the glass surface temperature to dry air layer in the dew point, the surface layer of dry air will produce dew or frost.Because the inner surface of the glass of the dew or frost and affect the performance of hollow glass.If the air layer at minus 40 degrees Celsius above the dew, hollow glass is not air layer condensation phenomenon in the process of. Hollow glass dew point refers to the air humidity in the air sealing layer in the saturated state when the temperature of the.Below the temperature, the air layer of the water vapor will condense into liquid water.It follows that the water content is high, the air dew point temperature is higher, when the surface temperature of the glass in the air in the air layer below the dew point, water will be in the air on the inner surface of the glass dew or frost. Hollow glass dew point is increased by outside moisture into the air layer without being absorbed by desiccant, there are three kinds of reasons may lead to the rise of dew: (1) memory causes the air bubbles sealant, water entering. (2) water vapor through the polymer diffusion into the air layer. (3) the effective adsorption capacity of desiccant is low.
control measures/ hollow glassedit
(1) to strictly control the production environment temperature The main effect of environmental production capacity and residual adsorption capacity. (2) reduce the moisture diffusion through the polymer Mainly depends on the choice of low permeability coefficient to determine the thickness of the sealing sealant is reasonable, reduce the temperature difference between inside and outside insulating glass (i.e. control in a certain temperature range and temperature range of production cannot be too large). (3) reduce the production time Minimize the desiccant in contact with the atmosphere of the time, reduce the loss of adsorption capacity and adsorption capacity of the desiccant is higher. (4) select the appropriate aluminum profile The gas pores seams to be small, reduced water absorption in the process of operation of molecular sieve rate. (5) select the appropriate desiccant To choose a higher adsorption rate and lasting desiccant. I believe that through the control of each link of material selection, processing, environment, quality of insulating glass will be significantly controlled.
Production process/ hollow glassedit
1 heating glass should be used more pressing roller, the pressure gradually to the required thickness.Each roller should be parallel to each other, to ensure uniform thickness of pressed glass. 2 after the press the exit strip temperature should be controlled at 40-55 DEG C. 3 glue sealing hollow glass adopts the sealing operation program is three step pressure, turn, pinch the hollow glass to complete the final program. The pressure will strip along the lateral edge direction perpendicular to another segment to two segment rubber extrusion layering, completely fused together so far; The turn: excess glue along the hollow space in the middle of the glass layer to smooth, no excess glue exist outside; The pinch: two pieces of glass inward pinch, eliminatebecauseTurn pressure, caused by the glass to the lateral separation caused by clearance. Pay attention to the problem The glue left hot press temperature; The rubber sealing temperature, thickness, roughness, displacement; The rubber seal fitting surface integrity; The tight seal of. Twelve
the way to distinguish/ hollow glassedit
1, filled with an inert gas, argon and krypton According to the construction of energy-efficient residential design experts, a window, indoor heat loss by radiation, conduction, glass window and door window page slot convection way, and thus will have a "hollow glass emerged".In fact, "insulating glass" is not "empty", according to the technical requirements of two layer spacing of hollow glass is generally 8mm, experiments show that if the 8mm spacing of a complete vacuum, atmospheric pressure would crush the glass.Hollow glass so qualified.The sandwich is 8mm thick spacing must be filled with inert gases argon and krypton.After filling, showed that the K value (heat transfer coefficient limit), an under vacuum condition can be decreased by 5%, which means better insulation performance. 2, the market confusion of double glass In other words, if you buy back the hollow glass interlayer really is "empty", it shows that the thermal insulation or heat insulation cooling performance is at best double glass, energy-saving insulation effect is poor, scientific proof, hollow glass can be qualified, K value can be decreased from 3.5 2.8 general window heat transfer coefficient of the heat transfer limit, performance can make the house is not easy to dissipate heat.Hollow glass market fake, most of them just two pieces of glass are simply fixed together, the heat insulation performance is poor. 3, aluminum glass entrainment hole "The poor insulation performance of double glass, often resulting from flooding fog interlayer due to air vapor, even a moldy, so some companies are often used in between two pieces of glass with aluminum in aluminum strip with holes, pores on the granular desiccant" processing "technique, in fact only a temporary cover, did not raise any insulation performance of double glass desiccant, a long time after the failure, or betray. "A trick to identify" the winter is, look at the glass have frozen, spring and summer to see if there is no water vapor.Of course, which is embedded in the aluminum strip, are often false vacuum.The window frame material is also a sign of hollow glass are usually steel instead of Aluminum Alloy.
technical parameter/ hollow glassedit
The following provisions excerpt from GB11944-2002: The material A. glass can be used for float glass, laminated glass, embossed glass, heat absorbing glass, coated glass, tempered glass, curtain wall and semi tempered glass, colored glass etc..Float glass shall conform to the provisions of GB11614, laminated glass shall comply with the provisions of GB9962, toughened glass shall comply with the provisions of GB9963, toughened and semi tempered glass curtain wall in line with the provisions of GB17841.Other varieties of glass should comply with the relevant standards or agreed by both parties. B. sealant shall meet the following requirements: Hollow glass with elastic sealant shall comply with the provisions of JC/T486; Plastic sealant for insulating glass should be in line withThe relevant provisions; The use of the first and the second sealant between components should be clearly color valid in more than half a year; Hidden frame curtain wall with second sealant must be silicone sealant; must meet the performance requirements of hollow glass. C strip: made of plastic sealant containing desiccant and wave type aluminum strip, its performance should comply with the relevant standards. C. frame: the use of metal frame, should be decontamination or chemical treatment. D. desiccant quality specifications, performance shall be in accordance with the corresponding standards. The length and the width of the hollow glass allowable deviation table. The allowable deviation of length or width (mm) L<1000 + 2 1000 L<2000 +2, -3 L = 2000 + 3 The hollow glass thickness tolerance table. The thickness of the glass thickness (mm) allowable deviation (mm) T<17 + 1 17 = t<22 + 1.5 T>22 + 2 Note: the nominal thickness of the hollow glass two glass thickness and the thickness of the spacer frame. The hollow glass two diagonal allowable deviation table. Square and rectangular hollow glass diagonal difference should be less than the average length of the diagonal 0.2%. The insulating glass sealant width: sealant layer width should be determined, the minimum width of 10mm + 2mm, double sealing outer sealant width should be determined, the minimum width of 5-7mm, rubber sealing adhesive layer thickness is 8mm + 2mm, special specifications or special requirements are agreed upon by both parties. The appearance of the inner surface of the hollow glass shall not impede the stains, inclusions and sealant splash phenomenon perspective. The performance test requirements: seal, dew point, ultraviolet radiation, climate cycles and high temperature and high humidity performance by GB7020 hollow glass, must meet the following requirements. The seal on the test pressure is lower than the ambient pressure was 10 + 0.5KPa, the thickness of growth must be larger than 0.8mm, the pressure to maintain 2.5 growth after the thickness deviation of<15% leakage of all samples is not allowed to have leakage phenomenon The dew point temperature drops to less than the dew point meter of-40 degrees, the dew point meter and surface contact 3min of all samples in the surface without dew or frost There shall be no fog pollution and ultraviolet irradiation of ultraviolet irradiation. The surface traces of 168h sample. The climate cycle and high temperature and high humidity test after 320 cycles, high temperature test, after 224 cycles, after the test of dew point test.A total of 12 pieces of samples, at least 11 pieces without dew or frost Hidden frame curtain wall using hollow glass, insulating glass sealant must be second must use silicone sealant, and structural glazing sealant compatibility, or both must be compatible with each other.When the structural assembly using a silicone sealant, the best orderHollow glassIn the same factory of silicone sealant sealing glue.
Experimental study on load bearing capacity of point supported insulating laminated glass andJournal of building structures - - Two thousand and fourTwenty-five(1 )
Heat transfer characteristics and its influence factors of hollow glass- - Journal of building materialsTwo thousand and fourSeven(1 )
Theoretical and Experimental Research on bearing capacity of point supported glass curtain wall- Journal of Tongji University (NATURAL SCIENCE EDITION) Two thousand and fiveThirty-three(11 )